A collection of over 3,000,000 reference entries on topics from all the major
academic subject areas serving as a great starting point for research. Full text articles plus images, audio files, and videos. Credo Reference also includes cross-references to other full text titles containing related information.
Includes more than 450 encyclopedias, dictionaries, handbooks, guides, and atlases in all fields. Sources are selected from 100 major publishers, such as ABC Clio, Bloomsbury, Cambridge University Press, Elsevier, Greenwood, Penguin, Routledge, Sage, Thames and Hudson, Wiley, and more.
By far the largest and most up-to-date single-volume English-Chinese and Chinese-English dictionary available and endorsed by academics worldwide, the Oxford Chinese Dictionary has been designed both for English speakers learning Mandarin Chinese and Mandarin Chinese speakers learning English. It has been produced using the latest lexicographic methods and the unique dictionary resources of Oxford University Press in Oxford and Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press in Beijing, together with an international body of expert advisors. The Oxford Chinese Dictionary contains over 300,000 words and phrases and 370,000 translations, including tens of thousands of example phrases illustrating key points of construction and usage. There are over 300 cultural notes giving essential information about many aspects of life and culture in the Chinese- and English-speaking worlds. Extensive supplementary material and over 50 pages of lexical and usage notes contain helpful extra information about Chinese and English. The organization and layout have been designed for maximum clarity and accessibility. All Chinese headwords are given in Simplified Chinese characters, and headwords and compounds are shown with Pinyin transcriptions. All the English headwords are also shown with phonetics, so that the learner of English can pronounce each one correctly. 12 months' access to Oxford's online dictionary service - Oxford Language Dictionaries Online* - is included with this book. The site is regularly updated with the latest new words and meanings from Oxford's language research programme, the Oxford Languages Tracker.
The crucial period of Chinese history, 220-960, falls naturally into contrasting phases. The first phase, also known as that of "early medieval China," is an age of political decentralization. Following the breakup of the Han empire, China was plunged into civil war and fragmentation and stayed divided for nearly four centuries. The second phase started in 589, during the Sui dynasty, when China was once again brought under a single government. Under the Sui, the bureaucracy was revitalized, the military strengthened, and the taxation system reformed. The fall of the Sui in 618 gave way to the even stronger Tang dynasty, which represents an apogee of traditional Chinese civilization. Inheriting all the great institutions developed under the Sui, the Tang made great achievements in poetry, painting, music, and architecture. The An Lushan rebellion, which also took place during Tang rule, brought about far-reaching changes in the socioeconomic, political, and military arenas. What transpired in the second half of the Tang and the ensuing Five Dynasties provided the foundation for the next age of late imperial China. The Historical Dictionary of Medieval China fills an urgent need for a standard reference tailored to the interest of Western academics and readers. The history of medieval China is related through the book's introductory essay, maps, a table of Dynastic Periods, a bibliography, and hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries on key people, historical geography, arts, institutions, events, and other important terms.
When the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) seized power in October 1949 China was one of the poorest nations in the world. In fact, it was so weak it had been conquered by Japan, a country one-tenth its size, a decade earlier. Now, more than fifty years later, the People's Republic of China (PRC) is an emerging economic, political, and military superpower with the world's fastest growing economy and largest population (1.3 billion in 2005). A member of the United Nations Security Council since the early 1970s and a nuclear power, China wields enormous influence in the world community. The second edition of the Historical Dictionary of the People's Republic of China contains more than 400 cross-referenced dictionary entries on individual topics spanning China's political, economic, and social system along with short biographies on important figures--from politicians to writers and movie directors--who have shaped Chinese history during the period of Communist rule from 1949 to 2006. Supplementing the entries are a chronology, an introduction, charts outlining the structure of the Chinese government, and a bibliography of works in English, making this a superb resource for college and high school students needing a quick reference on contemporary China.
Containing over 200 entries written by scholars working in various disciplines both in the United States and in China, this two-volume resource provides current, accurate, and useful information on the politics, economics, society, and culture of both the People's Republic and Taiwan since 1949. Illustrated and offering both a detailed subject index and extensive cross-referencing, this easy-to-use encyclopedia contains essays on important Chinese leaders and events since 1949, as well as on recent and contemporary political and cultural policies; relations with foreign states; internal poltical, economic, and commercial structures; literature; religion; the role of women; and many other important and timely topics. As China's importance as a political power and an economic force grows so does the need for current, accurate information on the country's leadership, people, policies, and institutions. Containing over 200 entries written by scholars working in various disciplines in both the U.S. and China, this two-volume resource provides such useful information on the politics, economics, society, and culture of both the People's Republic and Taiwan since 1949. Illustrated and offering both a detailed subject index and extensive cross-referencing, the encyclopedia contains essays on important Chinese leaders and events since 1949, as well as on contemporary political and cultural policies; relations with foreign states; internal political, economic, and commercial structures; literature; religion; the role of women; and many other topics of interest to both general and academic readers.