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CRAP Test, Expanded
- When was the item written, and how frequently does the publication come out?
- Is there evidence of newly added or updated information in the item?
- If the information is dated, is it still suitable for your topic?
- How frequently does information change about your topic?
- Does the item contain information relevant to your argument or thesis?
- Read the item's introduction, thesis, and conclusion.
- Scan main headings and identify keywords.
- How wide a scope does the item have? Will you use part or all of this resource?
- Does the information presented support or refute your ideas?
- If the information refutes your ideas, how will this change your argument?
- What is the material's intended audience?
- What are the author's credentials?
- What is the author's level of education, experience, and/or occupation?
- What qualifies the author to write about this topic?
- What affiliations does the author have? Could these affiliations affect their position?
- What organization or body published the information? Is it authoritative? Does it have explicit position or bias?
- Is the source well-documented? Does it include footnotes, citations, or a bibliography?
- Is information in the source presented as fact, opinion, or propaganda? Are biases clear?
- Can you verify information from referenced information in the source?
- Is the information written clearly and free of typographical and grammatical mistakes? Does the source look to be edited before publication? (A clean, well-presented paper does not always indicate accuracy, but usually at least means more eyes have been on the information.)
- Is the author's purpose to inform, sell, persuade, or entertain?
- Does the source have an obvious bias or prejudice?
- Is the article presented from multiple points of view?
- Does the author omit important facts or data that might disprove their argument?
- Is the author's language informal, joking, emotional, or impassioned?
- Is the information clearly supported by evidence?
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